Crime Scene Investigation: Understanding The CSI Effect

Programs such as Forensic files, Law and Order, CSI, CSI Miami etc may be hugely popular and thoroughly entertaining but they have created what is know in academic and professional circles as the ‘CSI effect’

According to Max Houck, director of the Forensic Science Initiative, a program that develops research and professional training for forensic scientists, “The CSI effect is basically the perception of the near-infallibility of forensic science in response to the TV show,”

The main distortion between fictional portrayals and the application of forensic science in the real world is ‘time frame’. It can take several weeks, sometimes months to get results back from the lab, however, in the fictional world of forensic science and crime scene investigation, results invariabaly come back straight away.

The CSI effect in action

It would seem that the CSI effect is most visible in the court room, particularly among jurors. Max Houck mentioned above, argues that Prosecutors fear the CSI effect among juries because they may question why everything is not subject to forensic analysis, when in fact not everything has to be. Equally, Defence attorneys are concerned about the CSI effect because jurors may perceive the science of forensics as completely objective and totally accurate, thus ignoring the possibility of human or technical error.

Writing for USA today Richard Willing outlined a number of examples that highlighted the CSI effect in action. These included:

A murder trial where jurors alerted the judge that a bloody coat introduced as evidence had not been tested for DNA. In fact, the tests were not needed because the defendant acknowledged being at the murder scene. The judge stated that TV had taught jurors about DNA tests, but not enough about when to use them.

A murder trial where jurors asked the judge if a cigarette butt found during the crime scene investigation could be tested to see if it could be linked to the defendant. The defence team had ordered the tests but had not introduced them into evidence. Upon doing so, the tests exonerated the defendant, and he was acquitted.

The fact that prosecutors are now being allowed to question potential jurors about their TV-watching habits.

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Writing a College Application Essay

The truth is, nobody really wants to be writing an essay for college during what feels like your last break before the chaos starts. But by the time fall rolls around and it’s application crunch time, you’ll be glad you did. Here is a composition of tips straight from the horse’s mouth. That’s right, from the very people themselves that slogged through countless college essays each year.

There is no better way to start your essay then with a grabber of a line. Something lighthearted, descriptive of yourself, and something that shows off your personality. Writing a college essay is not about making yourself seem already perfect, but more about giving them a chance to see, hear, taste, smell, and feel the type of world you live in. You don’t need to share every detail of your life, but giving them a thin slice of the pie is recommended.

Be genuine in what you write. The college admissions team doesn’t want you to try to impress them, but more so just tell them what is important to you. Don’t rely too heavily on how to books. If you need them to help get your brain flowing that’s okay, but chances are if you pick one of the suggested topics, they’ve already read one just like it. Be as original and creative as you can. The last thing you want is to write an essay that has been written by hundreds of other applicants. Your goal should be to stick out to the admissions team.

Before you complete the final draft of your essay, test it out orally on some family and friends. Pay attention to their reactions and body language to help you decide where you could use improvement. Make sure that your essay is written with your voice, and that no one else could write one just like it. You want to be heard as an individual who is unique and different.

Write about things that are of great importance to you. They want to know what you’re passionate about. Think about the things in your life that make you special and different. Everyone has different qualities and attributes to show off, so think deep and find out what makes you who you are. It’s important to realize that people who read essays for hours on end will read this essay. Do your best to stand out. You want them to remember you!

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Paper Writing Service – Affordable Custom Content That Makes You Look Good

A paper writing service can help save time when trying to meet various deadlines. Students who grasp the basic concept of a class but don’t have the time to write a research report or essay can use a copywriting service to get the job done efficiently. Essay service companies stay up to date with formats and popular topics.

While essays are commonly provided by writing service companies, other papers include:

  • Term papers
  • Research papers
  • Case studies
  • Book reports
  • Speeches
  • Dissertations
  • Theses
  • Bibliographies
  • Articles

Paper Writing Service Basics

Online services utilize a questionnaire that asks pertinent questions about the paper needed. Buyers can relay the type of paper, topic, the number of pages and words, the timeframe, and the citations needed. The paper writing service will assign the paper to a professional writer who writes the paper within the given parameters.

In some cases, a buyer can pay extra to select a specific writer or choose a writer with higher credentials. There may also be an option to upload files, such as specific resource materials, through the questionnaire form. The writer will upload the file, and it will be sent to the email address on file for the buyer.

Students utilizing a copywriting service need to be aware of a few things before hiring a service. Any service with extremely low rates may be outsourcing the work to people with poor writing skills who write for pennies a paper. The writing service should also have a guarantee that all work is original and unique from other content.

Why Use a Writing Service?

Having a paper written for you can help save time and improve academic performance. It can also help poor writers from being penalized for their writing skills, even if they understand the class materials. Students using this service can trust that the paper will reflect highly on their grasp of concepts and help them achieve academic success.

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Persuasive Essay Topics and How To Choose A Good One For Your Essay

Persuasive essay topics are used to write essays that are designed to persuade the reader that the point of view that is demonstrated in the essay is the correct one and that all others should share the same opinion. Some persuasive topics are controversial and writing an essay about one of these topics is a combination of research and good writing skills. When you are deciding on an essay topic, it is important to choose one that has plenty of information and statistics to support your point of view, and do not exaggerate any information that you have chosen to write about.

Good persuasive essay topics address typical issues such as abortion, illegal aliens, women’s rights, politics, etc. Here are some general categories of essay topics, and a little information about each one. Hopefully this will aid you in choosing the right topic for your persuasive essay.

Politics whether they are local, national, or world-wide, are topics that provoke a very passionate response from most people, and are a good idea for a persuasive essay. These issues can include the legal or social aspects and have two sides to the argument. Some examples of good political topics are: the pros and cons of the US involvement in other countries affairs, gay rights and gay marriage, abortion, legalization of marijuana, and the Health Care bill.

Technology is a major part of everyday life in today’s society, creating great topics for a persuasive essay. Technological advances happen so fast; that there is some opposition as to the effects it will have on society. Examples of good topics based on technology is; negative and positive effects of the internet, the amount of violence in video games, positive and negative effects of texting, the wide use of social media networks, cyber-bullying, and many more.

Topics that are based on education are usually very interesting to readers. Education topics are highly debated amongst teachers, parents, and politicians, and are relative to just about everybody at some point in their life. Such topics include home school versus public school, dress code or uniforms, traditional or year round school, school bullying and/or violence. These are used quite a bit as college persuasive essay topics, as they pertain directly to subjects that involve education and school.

Persuasive essay topics do not always have to be of a serious nature, you can write about things that are relevant in your life. This is a rather unusual approach to a persuasive essay, and can get you props for being creative. Some examples of these types of topics are; the best brand of soda, the worst day of the week, best band/musician of all time, what should be the age limit on the curfew laws.

There are many good persuasive essay topics to choose from. Take your time and research the topics that you find interesting and choose one that best fits your needs. The more information you can gather about the topic, the better prepared you will be for writing your essay. Remember, do not exaggerate or falsify any information you use in your essay. This can have a negative effect on the overall quality of your essay, no matter how well written it is.

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Falling Standard Of Education In Nigeria: Who Is To Be Blame?


The concept ” falling standard of Education” is a relative term because there is no well defined instruments to measure it with utmost reliability and validity. That is why scholars’ views on the concept varies. These scholars view it at different perspectives, depending on the angle each of them is looking at it.

Babalola, A (2006) sees the concept from admission of Nigerian University products in developed countries universities. That the first six Nigerian Universities (University of Ibadan, Ile Ife, Lagos, Benin, Nsukka and Zaria) had their products competing favourably with any other University in the world as their products were sought for by University of Harvard, Cambridge, Oxford and London for admission into their post-graduate courses. That these students record breaking performances and when they graduate are employed by the best multi-national companies and corporate bodies globally unlike today where no Nigerian University is among the top 6,000 Universities of the world (Adeniyi, Bello (2008) in Why no worry about rankings). He sees standard from how universities contribute to knowledge and solving problems besetting mankind.

According to Gateway to the Nation (2010), University of Ibadan is ranked 6,340th University in the world. In Africa, University of Ibadan is ranked 57th, OAU 69th and South African Universities are leading the way in Africa.
He also use written and spoken English as a yardstick for measuring standard of education which University of London conducted a research in West Africa and the result showed that teachers trained by colonial masters were better of than those trained by indigenous teachers.

He also used staffing, funding, foundation, origin and students as standard of education.

Standard of education to Dike, V. (2003) is how education contribute to the public health (or sociopolitical and economic development of a Nation).

Standard of education to either passing or failing of external examinations like WAEC, NECO, NABTEB, JAMB,(NOW UTME) among others.

Teachers without Boarders (2006) looks at educational standard from how the products of schools can be measured in terms of outcome. That is how school leavers contribute to the society in terms of cognitive affective and psychomotor. I will be using students to refer to both students and pupils, I will use head teacher to refer to both principal and headmaster.

Which ever way you may view standard of education, for you to conclude whether the standard is falling or not, you must take into consideration all the aforementioned variables including achieving educational goals.

Equally, for justice to be done while measuring these standards one has to look at reliability where all the schools to be measured must have the same infrastructure, teaching materials, quality of teachers, level and degree of learners, condition within which learning takes place, some methods of assessment and some types of contribution to the society among others.


Haven discussed what makes up standard in education, may I crave your indulgence to some of the established facts that constitute falling standard of education in Nigeria.

(1) Discipline: This is one of the outstanding attributes of education when it is rightly observed.

a. Repeating: school no longer observe repeating as every student is promoted to the next class whether they understand or not gives room for falling standard.
b. Attendance: The 75% of attendance universally accepted as the bases for someone to sit for examination is no longer observed.
c. Late coming: Student that come late are no longer punished, which leads to their losing morning classes.
d. Misbehaviour: Students are no longer punished for misbehavior because of their parental influences (lost of jobs or unnecessary transfer).
e. Cultism: This could refer to rituals, usually under oath binding the members to a common course. They operate covertly in fulfillment of their objectives to the detriment of other people. Thus, planning secondary needs above primary needs.

These cults exist because of over population of students in schools, wrong admissions not based on merits, hence fear of examination failures and selfish worldly gains.

(2) Quest for paper qualification: Nigerians respect paper qualification above performance in the fields. Hence, cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains are supposed to be measured on the field.

(3) Politicizing education: Merit is no longer regarded as it is now ” who you know” and not “what you can deliver” Technocrats (educationists are not appointed Commissioner of education and education board).

(4) Policy problem: Sometimes the type of policies government make on education adversely affects output. For instance, in College of Education, we have National Commission for Colleges of Education (NCCE), competing with JAMB for admission as the two guidelines vary.

Equally, WAEC, NECO, NABTEB, JAMB ( now UTME) compete with qualifying pre-requisites and regulation of entries into tertiary institutions.

(5) Teachers not being part of the examination bodies. One wonders whether the continuous Assessment submitted by these teachers are used or not.

(6) Accessibility of Schools: The Nigerian population boom has outnumbered the existing schools as the existing schools have to over admit.

This point can be practically seen in the following areas:

(i) Teacher / Student ratio of 1:25 is no longer there as in my class, it is 1:3900.
(ii) Students / books / Journals ratio of 1:10 is no longer feasible.
(iii) Politics of admission: Schools can no longer set targets for admission to conform with their facilities as powerful notes from above will force the school authorities to either over admit or find themselves in the labour market again. Yet it is those that are giving these notes are suppose to build more schools or provide needed infrastructure etc. to accommodate those collecting these notes.

(7) Over-dependent on cognitive domain: Schools do not give regards to affective domain that will mould characters of our young ones. Little attention is given to psychomotor while no attention is given to affective domain.

(8) Shortage of qualified teachers: Some schools in the rural areas only have the headmaster as government employee while the rest that may be secondary school drop outs are PTA staff. What miracle can these staff perform? Dike, V. (2006) observed that only 23% out of the then 400,000 primary schools in Nigeria have grade II even when NCE is now the minimum qualification for teachers at primary and Junior Secondary schools.

(9) Teachers welfare: It is no longer news that

(a) Politicians do not have negotiation council to negotiate their salary increase.
(b) There is no disparity among political office holders from the federal, state and local governments.
(c) Their salaries are increased at astronomical manner.
(d) Their salaries are increased any time without recourse to whether the nation’s economy can bear it or not.
(e) But for teachers, they must negotiate the 10 to 20% of an attempt to increase their salary with consideration of the economy of the nation. How can these teachers contribute and perform miracle when their family members are in the hospitals and the O.S. syndrome is written on their cards by pharmacists while they do not have money to treat.

(10) Constant Strikes: This is an impediment to smooth covering of syllabus. Oefule (2009) explained that one Nigerian guest asked a question on strike at Oxford University community but the vice chancellor could not even remember about strike, only the registrar remembered it for 17 years back. This is what governance means to the people.

(11) Long rule of the military; Education was not properly funded by the military regimes as according to Babalola, A(2006) Obasanjos administration inherited many left over problems of the military such as non- payment of pensions and gratuities of retired University staff, poor remuneration of university staff, dilapidating buildings of schools, libraries with outdated books, obsolete laboratory equipments, bad campus roads, inadequate water and power supply among others.

(12) In the secondary and primary schools levels, schools do not even have buildings talk less` of furniture’s, equipments and reading materials. This is the level where the foundation of education should be laid. Any faulty foundation will lead to faulty structures. What do you expect from the tertiary level?

(13) Lack of training of teachers: Teachers are not trained to update their knowledge with latest discoveries based on research, then how can they give what they don’t have?

(14) Poor state of Educational teaching facilities: Dike V. (2006) reported that research result shows that over 2015 primary schools in Nigeria do not have building but study under trees, talk less of teaching materials.

(15) Corruption: leaders of the schools and some Government officials either connive to buy equipments with loan money that cannot be of any use to the school or take such loans and do not even do anything with it.

(16) Poor budgetary allocation to education: A research work of 2001 shows that Nigeria only, allocate less than 20% to education it further reveals that Nigeria spends 0.76% to education as against Uganda 2.6%, Tanzania3.4%, Mozambique 4.1%, Angola 4.9%, Coted Ivore 5% Kenya 6.5% and South Africa 7.9% among others.


We have seen the causes of falling standards and from these causes we can deduce that the following are to be blamed:

1. Government suppose to carry the lion share of the blame because all the other variables are dependent variables to it.

2. Teachers also have their shares of the blame with regards to their diligent duties.

3. Parents: feeding has to be provided by parents. This is because parents do not leave schools to operate without interference.

4. Students: students who do not abide by school rules and regulations nor pay attention to their studies also contribute to falling standards. Students also seek for paper qualification and disregards to performance they also participate in cult activities that derail the progress of the academy.

5. The society is not left out as it is the way it sees and respects the products of these schools that recycles back again.


Based on the problems or causes identified above, the following solutions are proffered: Schools should respect and restore back discipline to bring back the lost glory of our educational standards.

Performance should be regarded and respected more than just paper qualification. Equally, education should not be politicized for whatever reason.

Policy makers should be mindful of policies that affect education .eg JAMB(UTME) regulation in admissions.

Teachers should be involved in examination activities and examination bodies should always publish examination reports and distribute it to various schools for them to hold school workshop for training of subject teachers on their areas of weaknesses observed in the students’ scripts with regards to following the marking scheme.

More schools should be built to increase accessibility by all. Cognitive, affective and psychomotor domain should be used for assessment of students.

Teachers’ welfare should be given priority by government to avoid unnecessary strikes in our educational sector while more qualified teachers should be employed to curb the present shortage of teachers in our schools.

Our civilian government should prove to the people that they are better than military government.

Teachers should be trained so that they can meet up with any new challenges Educational facilities should be upgraded to modern standards while teaching facilities should be adequately provided.

Corruption should be eliminated to the barest minimum by all stakeholders while government should increase its budgetary allocations to education to improve the standard of education in Nigeria.

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Sample Graduate School Essays That Will Help You Get an Interview

Although the application process for admission to graduate school can really give you a tough time, this is not the sole purpose of all these admission requirements. What a university’s admission committee wants to find out is if you have what it takes to survive and finish graduate studies. Of course, you have the results of the battery of tests and your transcript of records. Unfortunately, these are not sufficient on their own, especially since graduate school is not just a matter of aptitude but attitude as well. It’s good that former professors and mentors at work can submit their recommendation forms to improve your chances. It’s even better that an admission interview is part of the selection process, so you will be able to discuss your objectives more extensively. But before you get to that, you will have to submit an excellent graduate admission essay. It is advisable to read through a lot of sample graduate school essays to accomplish this.

What can sample graduate school essays do for you?

You may think that your writing abilities have enabled you to complete your bachelor’s in flying colors and that you no longer need to read other students’ sample graduate school essays. You may want to re-think that. Graduate school is an entirely different environment from college, and graduate school admission essays should go beyond the elements of style. Your essay should reflect your determination and suitability for graduate studies. For this reason, reading several essays should help you think of various ways that you can show the clarity of your personal and career development goals and your consistency in fulfilling these goals.

Where can you start looking?

If you’re lucky, you may have friends who have successfully got into or completed their graduate programs. They could help you with your application by providing tips on what admission committees usually look for. They might even allow you to read the essays which they have submitted to give you a better idea. If you aren’t that lucky, you can still access sample essays through the Internet. Choose the ones that are sure to catch and hold attention from the first line to the end.

What makes for a good essay?

As a statement of purpose, essays typically explain why you would want to get into graduate school. Make sure that you have the right reasons for wanting a master’s degree or a PhD. The minimum or maximum number of pages or words for admission essays is often given, so you have to write one that is concise but comprehensive. Do your homework and research whatever you could find on the program and the university of your choice, so you can make a good match between your personal goals and their academic objectives. Cite personal experiences which can show how you deal with difficulties with a positive outlook. Be creative, and start with something catchy, such as a story that you grew up on. Relate how insights from the story or the values of a character shaped your goals the way they are now. It would also be great to write about social responsibility. After all, society should benefit from your graduate degree in the end.

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Your College Application Essay – Six Ways to Write a Powerful Opening

Admissions Officers at most universities read thousands of application essays each year, many of them responding to the same prompt. That’s why, to set your essay apart, it is critical that your essay grabs the reader’s attention, right from the beginning.

Here are six ways you can do that.

1. Pose a question that the reader wants answered.

This does not mean you have to write an actual question, although there are times when that would be appropriate. But however you do it, it is absolutely imperative to get the reader wondering, “How is this going to turn out?” or “What does she mean by that?”

To accomplish this goal, start your essay with a provocative statement that implies there is more to be learned about the topic, and that reading the essay is going to deliver that information. If the prompt is about a memorable experience, for example, you could write, “As I stepped onto the raft, I had no idea I’d soon be fighting for my life.” In this way, your essay immediately gets the reader asking, “What exactly happened on that rafting trip?” This establishes a forward momentum, right at the top, that will then sweep the reader along, through everything that follows.

2. Defy expectations

If the prompt is to write about a person who influenced you, and you write, “The biggest influence in my life has been, well, me,” the reader, intrigued by what you mean, will instantly cast your essay in a positive light and be eager to continue reading. By putting a twist on the expected response, i.e., “Grandma’s love has been the biggest influence in my life” or some variation of that, you thus catch the reader off guard, and propel him or her into the body of your essay.

Other ways to be different include starting the essay with a single word (“Aggression!”) or anything else (“261-88-6205”) that departs from a more traditional approach.

3. Use unusual or provocative quotes.

“Benjamin Franklin said, ‘A penny saved is a penny earned,’” would be wrong. “‘I intend to live forever,’ Barbara Walters,” would be better.

4. Start at the end.

Begin your essay with the end of a story or incident. “When we finally got out of the building, I never wanted to see a movie again,” lets the reader know that the essay contains an entertaining story that’s going to make reading it worthwhile.

5. Use Humor

College application essays should be enjoyable to read. If you have a feel for being funny, don’t be afraid to open your essay with a clever line or turn of phrase. Be tasteful, of course, and if you do use humor, make sure it’s original and effective.

6. Keep working

Use the guidelines above to keep on refining and improving your work until you find the perfect way to begin your essay. Be experimental, daring. Don’t be satisfied until you’re certain that the opening of your essay will get the reader thinking, “Well, that’s one I haven’t heard before. Can’t wait to read the rest of this essay.”

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